An access point is a device, such as a wireless router, that allows wireless devices to connect to a network. Most access points have built-in routers, while others must be connected to a router in order to provide network access. In either case, access points are typically hardwired to other devices, such as network switches or broadband modems.
Active Directory (AD) is a Microsoft technology used to manage computers and other devices on a network. It is a primary feature of Windows Server, an operating system that runs both local and Internet-based servers. Active Directory allows network administrators to create and manage domains, users, and objects within a network.
Indicates the location of an Internet resource such as an e-mail address (email@example.com); web address (https://klik.solutions), or an internet protocol (IP) address (192.168.1.1).
An alias – or nickname – is a shortened, simplified name created for use in place of a longer, more complicated name.
A type of software program designed to prevent, detect and remove malicious software (malware) on IT systems, as well as individual computing devices.
A type of software and methodology that detect email messages that are unsolicited advertisements, called “spam.” A spam filter is used to detect spam and divert it to a spam folder (junk mailbox). Anti-spam is a basic, yet important component of reducing known email threats.
Similar and in tandem with anti-malware, Antivirus software is a type of program designed and developed to protect computers from malware like viruses, computer worms, spyware, botnets, rootkits, keyloggers and such. Antivirus programs function to scan, detect and remove viruses from your computer.
A small application that performs one specific task that runs within the scope of a dedicated widget engine or a larger program, often as a plug-in. Applets are not full-featured application programs, and are intended to be easily accessible.
An application, or application program, is a software program that runs on your computer. Web browsers, e-mail programs, word processors, graphic design, CRM, and utilities are all applications. The word “application” is used because each program has a specific application for the user.
An archive is a single file that contains multiple files and/or folders. Archives may be created by several different file archiving utilities and can be saved in one of several different formats. They may also be compressed to reduce the file size or encrypted for security purposes. The term “archive” can also be used as a verb, which refers to the process of creating an archive.
Or “XaaS” is a general, collective term that refers to the delivery of anything as a service. It recognizes the vast number of products, tools and technologies that vendors now deliver to users as a service over a network — typically the internet — rather than provide locally or on-site within an enterprise.
An archive is a single file that contains multiple files and/or folders. Archives may be created by several different file archiving utilities and can be saved in one of several different formats. They may also be compressed to reduce the file size or encrypted for security purposes. The term “archive” can also be used as a verb, which refers to the process of creating an archive.
An attachment, or email attachment, is a file sent with an email message. It may be an image, video, text document, or any other type of file. Most email clients and webmail systems allow you to send and receive attachments.
The process of identifying an individual, usually based on a username and password. In security systems, authentication is distinct from authorization , which is the process of giving individuals access to system objects based on their identity.
Just like the human backbone carries signals to many smaller nerves in the body, a network backbone carries data to smaller lines of transmission. A local backbone refers to the main network lines that connect several local area networks (LANs) together. The result is a wide area network (WAN) linked by a backbone connection.
Bandwidth describes the maximum data transfer rate of a network or Internet connection. It measures how much data can be sent over a specific connection in a given amount of time. For example, a gigabit Ethernet connection has a bandwidth of 1,000 Mbps, (125 megabytes per second). An Internet connection via cable modem may provide 25 Mbps of bandwidth.
A set of documents, instructions, and procedures which enable a business to respond to accidents, disasters, emergencies, and/or threats with zero or minimal downtime. It is also called a disaster recovery plan (DR Plan), or recovery plan.
A standard industry term for organizational data analytics, including historical, current, and predictive views of business operations. BI enables organizations to improve processes, business functions, and uncover new opportunities within current operating parameters.
A file that cannot be read by standard text editor programs like Notepad or Simple Text. Examples include documents created by applications such as Microsoft Word or WordPerfect or DOS files with the extension “.com” or “.exe”.
A common file format for Macintosh computers; it enables a binary file to be transferred over the Internet as an ASCII file. Using a program like Stuffit, a file can be encoded and renamed with an “.hqx” extension. The recipient uses a similar program to decode the file.
A bit (short for “binary digit”) is the smallest unit of measurement used to quantify computer data. It contains a single binary value of 0 or 1.
A blockchain is a digital record of transactions. The name comes from its structure, in which individual records, called blocks, are linked together in single list, called a chain. Blockchains are used for recording transactions made with cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, and have many other applications.
Short for “Web Log,” this term refers to a list of journal entries posted on a Web page. Anybody who knows how to create and publish a Web page can publish their own blog. Some Web hosts have made it even easier by creating an interface where users can simply type a text entry and hit “publish” to publish their blog.
This wireless technology enables communication between Bluetooth-compatible devices. It is used for short-range connections between desktop and laptop computers, smartphones, external speakers, displays, printers, and more.
Short for “Bitmap.” It can be pronounced as “bump,” “B-M-P,” or simply a “bitmap image.” The BMP format is a commonly used raster graphic format for saving image files. It was introduced on the Windows platform, but is now recognized by many programs on both Macs and PCs.
A bookmark is a saved shortcut that directs your browser to a specific webpage. It stores the title, URL, and favicon of the corresponding page. Saving bookmarks allows you to easily access your favorite locations on the Web.
Boolean, or boolean logic, is a subset of algebra used for creating true/false statements. Boolean expressions use the operators AND, OR, XOR, and NOT to compare values and return a true or false result.
A device which connects two or more local area networks (LANs) together.
A high-speed Internet connection in which a single cable can carry a large amount of data at once. The most common types of Internet broadband connections are cable modems (which use the same connection as cable TV) and DSL modems (which use your existing phone line).
A program used to access web pages. The most popular browsers are Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Safari.
A buffer contains data that is stored for a short amount of time, typically in the computer’s memory (RAM). The purpose of a buffer is to hold data right before it is used. For example, when you download an audio or video file from the Internet, it may load the first 20% of it into a buffer and then begin to play. While the clip plays back, the computer continually downloads the rest of the clip and stores it in the buffer. Because the clip is being played from the buffer, not directly from the Internet, there is less of a chance that the audio or video will stall or skip when there is network congestion.
Ability to maintain business functions or quickly resuming them in the event of a major disruption, whether caused by a fire, flood or malicious attack by cybercriminals. Such ability requires proactive, daily activities such as project management, data and system backups both on premises and off site, help desk, and more. Business Continuity refers to those activities performed daily to maintain service, consistency, and recoverability – not just after a disaster has occurred.
A business continuity plan (BCP) outlines procedures and instructions an organization must follow in the face of such disasters; it covers business processes, assets, human resources, business partners and more. Whereas a disaster recovery plan (DR) focuses mainly on restoring technology and access, a BCP looks at the continuity of the entire organization.
Bring Your Own Device or “BYOD” refers to employees who bring their own computing devices – such as smartphones, laptops and tablets – to the workplace for use and connectivity on the secure corporate network.
A unit of data that is eight binary digits long. A byte is the unit most computers use to represent a character such as a letter, number or typographic symbol.
A cable modem is a peripheral device used to connect to the Internet. It operates over coax cable TV lines and provides high-speed Internet access. Since cable modems offer an always-on connection and fast data transfer rates, they are considered broadband devices.
Stores recently used information so that it can be quickly accessed at a later time. Computers incorporate several different types of caching in order to run more efficiently, thereby improving performance. Common types of caches include browser cache, disk cache, memory cache, and processor cache.
A program used to verify that a human, rather than a computer, is entering data. Captchas are commonly seen at the end of online forms and ask the user to enter text from a distorted image. The text in the image may be wavy, have lines through it, or may be highly irregular, making it nearly impossible for an automated program to recognize it. (Of course, some captchas are so distorted that they can be difficult for humans to recognize as well.) Fortunately, most captchas allow the user to regenerate the image if the text is too difficult to read. Some even include an auditory pronunciation feature.
Specifies that each letter of a word or term must be typed exactly as required or shown-as a capital (upper-case) letter or a common (lower case) letter. Usually, passwords are case sensitive for better security. Also, a database search can be made case sensitive for greater accuracy.
A Web service or application that allows users to communicate, or chat, in real time with another party such as visitors to their website. Live chat applications are commonly used to provide immediate customer support and information to clients and customers.
A program or a piece of computer hardware that accesses a service made available by a server. The server is often (but not always) on another computer system, in which case the client accesses the service by way of a network.
The “client-server” architecture is common in both local and wide area networks. For example, if an office has a server that stores the company’s database on it, the other computers in the office that can access the database are “clients” of the server. On a larger scale, when you access your e-mail from a mail server on the Internet, your computer acts as the client that connects to the mail server. The term “client software” is used to refer to the software that acts as the interface between the client computer and the server. For example, if you use Microsoft Outlook to check your e-mail, Outlook is your “e-mail client software” that allows you to send and receive messages from the server.
“Cloud” comes from early network diagrams, in which the image of a cloud was used to indicate a large network, such as a WAN. The cloud eventually became associated with the entire Internet, and the two terms are now used synonymously. The cloud may also be used to describe specific online services, which are collectively labeled “cloud computing.” Examples of popular cloud-based services include web applications, SaaS, online backup, and other types of online storage. Traditional Internet services like web hosting, email, and online gaming may also be considered part of the cloud since they are hosted on Internet servers, rather than users’ local computers. Even social networking websites such as Facebook and LinkedIn are technically cloud-based services, since they store your information online.
Cloud computing refers to applications and services offered over the Internet. These services are offered from data centers all over the world, which collectively are referred to as the “cloud.” Examples of cloud computing include online backup services, social networking services, and personal data services such as Apple’s MobileMe. Cloud computing also includes online applications, such as those offered through Microsoft Online Services. Hardware services, such as redundant servers, mirrored websites, and Internet-based clusters are also examples of cloud computing.
Companies that offer network services, infrastructure, or business applications in the cloud. The cloud services are hosted in a data center that can be accessed by companies or individuals using network connectivity.
The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a set of rules for running scripts and programs on a Web server. It specifies what information is communicated between the Web server and clients’ Web browsers and how the information is transmitted.
Refers to 3D graphics used in film, TV, and other types of visual media. Most modern action films include at least some CGI for special effects, while other movies, such as a Pixar animated films, are built completely from computer generated graphics.
Stands for “Content Management System.” A CMS is a software tool that allows you to create, edit, and publish content. While early CMS software was used to manage documents and local computer files, most CMS systems are now designed exclusively to manage content on the Web.
Used to reduce the size of one or more files. When a file is compressed, it takes up less disk space than an uncompressed version and can be transferred to other systems more quickly. Therefore, compression is often used to save disk space and reduce the time needed to transfer files over the Internet.
A cookie is a small amount of data generated by a website and saved by your web browser. Its purpose is to remember information about you, similar to a preference file created by a software application. While cookies serve many functions, their most common purposes are to store login information and user preferences for a specific website.
“Central Processing Unit.” The CPU is the primary component of a computer that processes instructions. It runs the operating system and applications, constantly receiving input from the user or active software programs. It processes the data and produces output, which may stored by an application or displayed on the screen.
Stands for “Cascading Style Sheet.” Cascading style sheets are used to format the layout of Web pages. They can be used to define text styles, table sizes, and other aspects of Web pages that previously could only be defined in a page’s HTML. CSS helps Web developers create a uniform look across several pages of a Web site. Instead of defining the style of each table and each block of text within a page’s HTML, commonly used styles need to be defined only once in a CSS document. Once the style is defined in cascading style sheet, it can be used by any page that references the CSS file.
A special symbol on your screen which can indicate two things: 1) where your mouse pointer is, or 2) where the next character typed will be entered in a line of text.
A deliberate exploitation of computer systems, technology-dependent enterprises and networks. Cyberattacks use malicious code to alter computer code, logic or data, resulting in disruptive consequences that can compromise data and lead to cybercrimes, such as information and identity theft.
The electronic posting of mean-spirited messages about a person (such as a student) often done anonymously.
The technologies, processes, and practices designed to protect networks, devices, programs, and data from attack, damage, or unauthorized access.
A term used to describe the virtual world of computers.
DaaS – or Desktop-as-a-Service – is a form form of virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) in which the VDI is outsourced and handled by a third party. Also called hosted desktop services, desktop-as-a-service is frequently delivered as a cloud service along with the apps needed for use on the virtual desktop.
A constantly running program that triggers actions when it receives certain input. For example, a printer daemon spools information to a printer when a user decides to print a document. A daemon running on a mail server routes incoming mail to the appropriate mailboxes. Web servers use an “HTTPD” daemon that sends data to users when they access Web pages.
Copying or archiving files and folders for the purpose of being able to restore them in case of data loss. Data loss can be caused by many things ranging from computer viruses to hardware failures to file corruption to fire, flood, or theft (etc). This is often confused with, but is not the same as disaster recovery. Data backup provides copies in the event of data loss. Disaster recovery includes a workable environment in the event of system loss or downtime
A data structure that stores organized information. Most databases contain multiple tables, which may each include several different fields. For example, a company database may include tables for products, employees, and financial records. Each of these tables would have different fields that are relevant to the information stored in the table.
A facility composed of networked computers and storage that businesses or other organizations use to organize, process, store and disseminate large amounts of data. It generally includes redundant backup power supplies, data communications connections, environmental controls including HVAC and fire suppression, and multiple layers of physical and digital security.
Data design, or data architecture, refers to the way data is structured. For example, when creating a file format for an application, the developer must decide how to organize the data in the file. For some applications, it may make sense to store data in a text format, while other programs may benefit from a binary file format. Regardless of what format the developer uses, the data must be organized within the file in a structure that can be recognized by the associated program.
A general term that covers a broad range of data applications. It may refer to basic data management concepts or to specific technologies. Some notable applications include 1) data design, 2) data storage, and 3) data security.
The process of copying backup data from secondary storage and restoring it to its original location or a new location. A restore – also known as data recovery – is performed to return data that has been lost, stolen or damaged to its original condition or to move data to a new location.
Data security involves protecting computer data. Many individuals and businesses store valuable data on computer systems. If you’ve ever felt like your life is stored on your computer, you understand how important data can be. Therefore, it is wise to take steps to protect the privacy and integrity of your data. Some steps include installing a firewall to prevent unauthorized access to your computer and encrypting personal data that is submitted online or shared with other users. It is also important to backup your data so that you will be able to recover your files in case your primary storage device fails.
Refers to the many different ways of storing data. This includes hard drives, flash memory, optical media, and temporary RAM storage. When selecting an appropriate data storage medium, concepts such as data access and data integrity are important to consider. For example, data that is accessed and modified on a regular basis should be stored locally on a hard drive or flash media. This is because these types of media provide quick access and allow the data to be moved or changed. Archived data, on the other hand, may be stored on off premises in slower storage.
The process of restoring or converting a .zip or .sit file to its original size and format.
Defragmenting your hard disk is a maintenance task to boost the performance of your computer. Adding and deleting files from your hard disk is a common task. Unfortunately, this process is not always done very efficiently. For example, when you delete a bunch of small files and add a new large file, the file may get broken up into multiple sections on the hard disk. The computer will still read the newly added file as a single valid file, but the drive will have to scan multiple parts of the disk to read it. Because hard disk seek time is one of the most significant bottlenecks in a computer’s performance, this can drag down your computer’s speed quite a bit.
Degaussing is the process of reducing a magnetic field. It can be used to reset the magnetic field of a cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor or to destroy the data on a magnetic storage device.
The desktop is the primary user interface of a computer. When you boot up your computer, the desktop is displayed once the startup process is complete. It includes the desktop background (or wallpaper) and icons of files and folders you may have saved to the desktop.
A desktop computer (or desktop PC) is a computer that is designed to stay in a single location. It may be a tower (also known as a system unit) or an all-in-one machine, such as an iMac. Unlike laptops and other portable devices, desktop computers cannot be powered from an internal battery and therefore must remain connected to a wall outlet.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a protocol that automatically assigns a unique IP address to each device that connects to a network. With DHCP, there is no need to manually assign IP addresses to new devices. Therefore, no user configuration is necessary to connect to a DCHP-based network. Because of its ease of use and widespread support, DHCP is the default protocol used by most routers and networking equipment.
It is a window that pops up on a computer screen to initiate a dialog with the user with options that the user can select. After the selections have been made, the user can typically click “OK” to enter the changes or “Cancel” to discard the selections. It is customary for menu options that include an ellipsis at the end, such as “Preferences…” or “Save As…”, to open a dialog box when selected.
A deliberate exploitation of computer systems, technology-dependent enterprises and networks. Cyberattacks use malicious code to alter computer code, logic or data, resulting in disruptive consequences that can compromise data and lead to cybercrimes, such as information and identity theft.
To digitize something means to convert it from analog to digital. For example, an analog audio signal received by a microphone is digitized when it is recorded by a computer. Computers must digitize analog input because they are digital devices and cannot process analog information.
Dual In-line Memory Module, a type of computer memory. A DIMM is a small circuit board that holds memory chips. It uses a 64-bit bus to the memory, whereas a single in-line memory module (SIMM) only has a 32-bit path. This allows DIMMs to transfer more data at once. Because DIMMs have faster data transfer capabilities than SIMMs, they have pretty much replaced SIMMs.
A directory is another name for a folder. File systems use directories to organize files within a storage device, such as an HDD or SSD. For example, system files may be located in one directory, while user files may be stored in another. While directories often contain files, they may also contain other directories, or subdirectories.
A part of security planning and is developed in conjunction with a business continuity plan. Disaster recovery is a set of policies and procedures which focus on protecting an organization from any significant effects in case of a negative event, which may include cyberattacks, natural disasters or building or device failures. Disaster recovery helps in designing strategies that can restore hardware, applications and data quickly for business continuity.
A business plan that describes how work can be resumed quickly and effectively after a disaster. Disaster recovery planning is just part of business continuity planning and applied to aspects of an organization that leverage an IT infrastructure to function.
Stands for “Domain Name System.” Domain names serve as easy to memorize names for websites and other services on the Internet. DNS translates domain names into IP addresses, allowing you to access an Internet location by its domain name.
DNS records are stored in zone files and are used for translating domain names to IP addresses. They also contain other data, including the domain name’s name server and mail server information. If there are domain name aliases, such as the commonly used “www” preceding the domain name, these will also be listed in the DNS record.
Specific to local networks, a domain contains a group of computers that can be accessed and administered with a common set of rules. For example, a company may require all local computers to be networked within the same domain so that each computer can be seen from other computers within the domain or located from a central server. Setting up a domain may also block outside traffic from accessing computers within the network, which adds an extra level of security.
A domain name is a unique name that identifies a website. For example, the domain name of the Klik Solutions website is “klik.solutions” and the Klik Support website is “kliksupport.com”. Each website has a domain name that serves as an address, which is used to access the website.
Can be used in two ways. As an action, it refers to the process of receiving data over the Internet. Downloading is the opposite of uploading, or sending data to another system over the Internet. As used in reference to an object, a download may refer to either a file that is retrieved from the Internet or the process of downloading a file.
Downtime is a period when a system is not available. It may apply to any computer, server or network. For example, web server reliability is often measured in terms of downtime, where little to no downtime is ideal. Data centers and cloud providers measure downtime by a percentage of uptime such as “6 nines” or 99.9999% uptime.
Dots Per Inch, DPI is used to measure the resolution of an image both on screen and in print. As the name suggests, the DPI measures how many dots fit into a linear inch. Therefore, the higher the DPI, the more detail can be shown in an image. Print quality images require 300dpi, whereas 96dpi files are sufficient for web use. The more dpi per image, the larger the file size.
Disaster Recovery-as-a-Service is a cloud computing and backup service model that uses cloud resources to protect applications and data from disruption caused by disaster. Whereas data backup simply copies data files for restore, DRaaS gives an organization a total system backup – operating systems, applications, file access, etc – that allows for business continuity in the event of system failure.
A common action performed within a graphical user interface. It involves moving the cursor over an object, selecting it, and moving it to a new location.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a communications medium used to transfer digital signals over standard telephone lines. Along with cable Internet, DSL is one of the most popular ways Internet Service Providers (ISP’s) provide broadband Internet access.
Email, “electronic mail”, is, along with the web, one of the most widely used features of the Internet. It allows you to send and receive messages to and from anyone with an email address, anywhere in the world. Email uses multiple protocols within the TCP/IP suite. For example, SMTP is used to send messages, while the POP or IMAP protocols are used to retrieve messages from a mail server. When you configure an email account, you must define your email address, password, and the mail servers used to send and receive messages. Most webmail services configure your account automatically, only requiring that you enter your email address and password. However, if you use an email client like Microsoft Outlook or Apple Mail, you may need to manually configure each account. Besides the email address and password, you may also have to enter the incoming and outgoing mail servers and enter the correct port numbers for each one.
Preserving and making searchable all email to/from an individual. Email archiving solutions capture email content either directly from the email application itself or during transport. The messages are typically then stored on magnetic disk storage and indexed to simplify future searches. In addition to simply accumulating email messages, these applications index and provide quick, searchable access to archived messages independent of the users of the system using a couple of different technical methods of implementation. The reasons a company may opt to implement an email archiving solution include protection of mission critical data, to meet retention and supervision requirements of applicable regulations, and for e-discovery purposes.
An emoji is a small icon that can be placed inline with text. The name “emoji” comes from the Japanese phrase “e” and “moji”, which translates to “picture character”. While smiley faces are the most commonly used emojis, they can also represent people, places, animals, objects, flags, and symbols. By inserting emojis into a message, you can emphasize a feeling or simply replace words with symbols.
A combination of the terms “emotion and icon”. Unlike emojis which use pictures, an emoticon refers to facial expressions represented by keyboard characters. For example, the emoticon ? represents a happy face and ? represents a sad face. By inserting an emoticon into a message, you can help the recipient better understand the feeling you want to get across.
When one system imitates or reproduces another system. This can be done using hardware, software, or a combination of the two. However, as hardware is expensive to reproduce, most emulation is done using software. One of the most common types of software emulation involves running different operating systems in a virtual environment. For example, virtual software applications will enable a Windows and other operating systems to run on an Intel-based Mac computer.
Turning data into “digital confetti”, encryption is the process of converting data to an unrecognizable or “encrypted” form. It is commonly used to protect sensitive information so that only authorized parties can view it. This includes files and storage devices, as well as data transferred over wireless networks and the Internet.
Encapsulated PostScript, EPS is a PostScript image file format that is compatible with PostScript printers and is often used for transferring files between various graphics applications. EPS files will print identically on all PostScript-compatible printers and will appear the same in all applications that can read the PostScript format.
Also known as a “direct connection, ethernet is the standard way to connect computers on a network over a wired connection. It provides a simple interface and for connecting multiple devices such as computers, routers, and switches. With a single router and a few Ethernet cables, you can create a local area network (LAN), which allows all connected devices to communicate with each other.
Also referred to as an Ethernet adapter or network interface card (NIC), it is a card that plugs into a slot on the motherboard and enables a computer to access an Ethernet network (LAN). In the past, desktop computers always used cards.
An executable file is a type of computer file that runs a program when it is opened. This means it executes code or a series of instructions contained in the file. For example, viruses are typically executable files that launch – or execute – when opened.
An expansion card is a printed circuit board that can be installed in a computer to add functionality to it. For example, a user may add a new graphics card to his computer to give it more 3D graphics processing power. An audio engineer may add a professional sound card to his machine to increase the computer’s audio input and output connections. Users that need more Firewire or USB ports can add Firewire or USB expansion cards, which provide additional connections.
Export is a command usually found within a program’s File menu. It is similar to the File Save As… command, but is typically used for more specific purposes. For example, instead of simply saving a file with a different name or different format, “Export” might be used to save parts of a file, create a backup copy of a file, or save a file with customized settings.
An area in a fixed or known location in a unit of data such as a record, message header, or computer instruction that has a purpose and usually a fixed size. In some contexts, a field can be subdivided into smaller fields.
A file is a collection of data stored in one unit, identified by a filename. It can be a document, picture, audio or video stream, data library, application, or other collection of data. The following is a brief description of each file type.
A suffix preceded by a period at the end of a filename which is used to describe the file type. For example, on a Windows computer, the extension “.exe” identifies it as an executable file.
Hard disks use a file system, which organizes all the files on the disk. The file system is created when you initialize or format your hard disk. It sets up the root directory and subsequent directories beneath it. The file system allows you to create new files and folders, which are added to different parts of the “file tree” on your hard disk.
A common term for Financial Technology, fintech is a collection of computer applications and other technology used to support or enable accounting, banking, and financial services.
A hardware or software barrier between a trusted system or network and outside connections, such as the Internet. However, a computer firewall is more of a filter than a wall, allowing trusted data to flow through it.
FireWire is an I/O interface developed by Apple Computer. It is also known as IEEE 1394, which is the technical name standardized by the IEEE. Other names for IEEE 1394 include Sony i.Link and Yamaha mLAN, but Apple’s FireWire name the most commonly used. FireWire is considered a high-speed interface, and therefore can be used for connecting peripheral devices that require fast data transfer speeds. Examples include external hard drives, video cameras, and audio interfaces.
Adobe Flash, a multimedia technology. Flash allows Web developers to incorporate animations and interactive content into their websites. Because Flash animations can incorporate text and vector graphics, they typically don’t take up a lot of disk space. The contents of a Flash animation may also be compressed to further reduce the file size. This makes it possible for Flash content to be downloaded relatively quickly. Still, large Flash animations may still take a few seconds to load in your browser. Therefore, when you open a Web page and see a “Loading…” animation, it usually means Flash content is being downloaded to your computer.
Also known as jump drives, thumb drives, pen drives, and USB keychain drives. A flash drive is a small data storage device that uses flash memory and has a built-in USB connection. Early flash drives could store only a few megabytes of data, but modern flash drives can store several gigabytes of information. Since they are small in size but have large storage capacities, flash drives have replaced floppy disks and removable hard disks. Because they have a built-in USB connection, flash drives also don’t require a special disk drive to be used. Instead, they can be used on any computer with a USB port, which nearly all modern computers have.
A type of memory that retains information even after power is turned off; commonly used in memory cards and USB flash drives for storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital products.
Computer folders can store and organize files such as documents, applications, archives, scripts, and libraries. Folders can even store other folders, which may contain additional files and folders. Folders are also called directories because of the way they organize data within the file system of a storage device
A font is a collection of characters with a similar design. These characters include lowercase and uppercase letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and symbols.
Freeware is software that is free to use. Unlike commercial software, it does not require any payment or licensing fee. It is similar to shareware, but will not eventually ask you for payment to continue using the software. You can legally download and use freeware for as long as you want without having to pay for it.
The most efficient way to store a file is in a contiguous physical block. However, over time, as a storage device reads and writes data, fewer blocks of free space are available. In some cases, it may be necessary to split a file into multiple areas of a storage device. This is called file fragmentation.
File Transfer Protocol is a protocol designed for transferring files over the Internet. Files stored on an FTP server can be accessed using an FTP client, such as a web browser, FTP software program, or a command line interface.
Graphics Interchange Format is an image file format commonly used for images on the web and sprites in software programs. Unlike the JPEG image format, GIFs uses lossless compression that does not degrade the quality of the image. However, GIFs store image data using indexed color, meaning a standard GIF image can include a maximum of 256 colors.
One GB is equal to 1,000 megabytes and precedes the terabyte unit of measurement. While a gigabyte is technically 1,000,000,000 bytes, in some cases, gigabytes are used synonymously with gibibytes, which contain 1,073,741,824 bytes.
Global Positioning System is a satellite navigation system used to determine the ground position of an object. GPS technology was first used by the United States military in the 1960s and expanded into civilian use over the next few decades. Today, GPS receivers are included in many commercial products, such as automobiles, smartphones, exercise watches, and GIS devices. The GPS system includes 24 satellites deployed in space about 12,000 miles above the earth’s surface. They orbit the earth once every 12 hours at an extremely fast pace of roughly 7,000 miles per hour. The satellites are evenly spread out so that four satellites are accessible via direct line-of-sight from anywhere on the globe.
Greyware refers to applications that have annoying, undesirable, or undisclosed behavior but do not fall into any of the major threat (ie. Virus or Trojan horse) categories.
Graphical user interface pronounced “gooey” is a user interface that includes graphical elements, such as windows, icons and buttons. The term was created in the 1970s to distinguish graphical interfaces from text-based ones, such as command line interfaces. However, today nearly all digital interfaces are GUIs.
A computer handshake serves as a greeting between two computer systems. It is commonly used to initialize a network connection between two hosts. A computer handshake may be completed between any two systems that communicate with each other on the same protocol. The two systems may be a client and server or simply two computers on a P2P network. The handshake confirms the identities of the connecting systems and allows additional communication to take place.
A type of storage device, the hard disk is a spindle of magnetic disks, called platters, that record and store information. Because the data is stored magnetically, information recorded to the hard disk remains intact after you turn your computer off. This is an important distinction between the hard disk and RAM, or memory, which is reset when the computer’s power is turned off. The hard disk is housed inside the hard drive, which reads and writes data to the disk.
Refers to the physical parts of a computer and related devices. Internal hardware devices include motherboards, hard drives, and RAM. External hardware devices include monitors, keyboards, mice, printers, and scanners.
Any application that handles files received by a Web browser. It is non-native and unviewable by the browser. A browser invokes a helper application through a prebuilt component in the browser’s stored list of applications.
A home page is a webpage that serves as the starting point of website. It is the default webpage that loads when you visit a web address that only contains a domain name. For example, visiting https://klik.solutions will display the Klik Solutions home page.
A computer that is accessible over a network. It can be a client, server, or any other type of computer. Each host has a unique identifier called a hostname that allows other computers to access it.
HyperText Markup Language is the language used to create webpages. “Hypertext” refers to the hyperlinks that an HTML page may contain. “Markup language” refers to the way tags are used to define the page layout and elements within the page.
HyperText Transfer Protocol is the protocol used to transfer data over the web. It is part of the Internet protocol suite and defines commands and services used for transmitting webpage data.
HyperText Transport Protocol Secure is the same thing as HTTP, but uses a secure socket layer (SSL) for security purposes. Some examples of sites that use HTTPS include banking and investment websites, e-commerce websites, and most websites that require you to log in. Google Chrome brings attention to secure sites in the taskbar to alert users if a site is secure using SSL.
A cloud computing environment that uses a mix of on-premises, private cloud and third-party, public cloud services with orchestration between the two platforms.
A hyperlink is a word, phrase, or image that you can click on to jump to a new document or a new section within the current document. Hyperlinks are found in nearly all Web pages, allowing users to click their way from page to page. Text hyperlinks are often blue and underlined, but don’t have to be. When you move the cursor over a hyperlink, whether it is text or an image, the arrow should change to a small hand pointing at the link. When you click it, a new page or place in the current page will open.
Hypertext is text that links – is hyperlinked – to other information. By clicking on a link in a hypertext document, a user can quickly jump to different content.
A software program that manages one or more virtual machines (VMs). It is used to create, start, stop, and reset VMs. The hypervisor allows each VM or “guest” to access the physical hardware, such as the CPU, RAM, and storage. It can also limit how many system resources each VM can use so that multiple VMs can run simultaneously on a single system.
Infrastructure as a Service refers to the delivery of computing capacity and infrastructure as a service. Also known as HaaS (hardware as a service), IaaS encompasses all of the physical computing resources that support delivery of applications as a service. IaaS provides a major cost savings to organizations, as it provides access to additional computing capacity on demand, without the need for a major capital investment in additional hardware, etc. There are fewer players in the IaaS marketplace for this reason, as compared to PaaS (platform as a service) and SaaS (software as a service) providers, due to the large capital and operational expenses that are required to establish and maintain IaaS delivery.
An icon on your computer screen represents an object or a program on your hard drive. For example, the folders you see on your desktop or in open windows are icons. The files that you see in those folders are also icons. The trash can on the Macintosh and the recycle bin on Windows are both icons as well.
Internet Connection Sharing allows multiple computers to connect to the Internet using the same Internet connection and IP address. For example, several computers in a household can connect to the same cable or DSL modem using a router. As long as the router is connected to the modem, every computer connected to the router is also connected to the Internet. Network address translation (NAT) allows the computers to share the same IP address.
An image map is positional information in XHTML and HTML which has details of coordinates related to a unique image. Unlike a normal image link where the entire area of image is linked to a single destination, an image map is created to hyperlink sections in image to different destinations. Image maps provide a convenient way of linking different sections of an image without the need to create image files for the image. An image map is also known as a clickable image map.
Pronounced “eye-map”, Internet Message Access Protcol is a method of accessing e-mail messages on a server without having to download them to your local hard drive. This is the main difference between IMAP and another popular e-mail protocol called “POP3.” POP3 requires users to download messages to their hard drive before reading them. The advantage of using an IMAP mail server is that users can check their mail from multiple computers and always see the same messages. This is because the messages stay on the server until the user chooses to download them to a local drive. Most webmail systems are IMAP based, which allows people to access to both their sent and received messages no matter what computer they use to check their mail.
A global wide area network that connects computer systems across the world. It includes several high-bandwidth data lines that comprise the Internet “backbone.” These lines are connected to major Internet hubs that distribute data to other locations, such as web servers and ISPs. In order to connect to the Internet, you must have access to an Internet service provider (ISP), which acts as the go-between for you and the Internet. Most ISPs offer broadband Internet access via a cable, DSL, or fiber connection. When you connect to the Internet using a public Wi-Fi signal, the Wi-Fi router is still connected to an ISP that provides Internet access. Even cellular data towers must connect to an Internet service provider to provide connected devices with access to the Internet.
Internet Protocol address is a unique address that identifies a device on the Internet or a local network. It allows a system to be recognized by other systems connected via the Internet protocol.
Internet Relay Chat is a service that allows people to chat with each other online. It operates on a client/server model where individuals use a client program to connect to an IRC server.
PCs use interrupt requests, IRQ’s, to manage various hardware operations. Devices such as sound cards, modems, and keyboards can all send interrupt requests to the processor. For example, when the modem needs to run a process, it sends an IRQ to the CPU to interrupt its current job to let the modem run its process.
An ISP, or internet service provider, provides access to the Internet. Whether you’re at home or work, each time you connect to the Internet, your connection is routed through an ISP.
Internet technology refers to anything related to computing technology, such as networking, hardware, software, the Internet, or the people that work with these technologies. Many companies now have IT departments for managing the computers, networks, and other technical areas of their businesses. IT jobs include computer programming, network administration, computer engineering, Web development, technical support, and many other related occupations.
An IT Assessment looks at the state of your IT environment to identify strengths, weaknesses, vulnerabilities, and risks. The Klik Solutions methodology includes reviewing hardware, applications, user policies, and other vital areas of your IT environment and comparing them to industry best practices. Additionally, we work with your key people to understand the challenges they face based on your current IT. Finally, a status report including risk report and recommendations are presented as a deliverable.
Independent verification and validation (IV&V) involves verification and validation from a third party organization not involved in the development of the product. Thus, the product, such as a software, gets examined by third party. The main check performed is whether user requirements are met along side ensuring that the product is structurally sound and built to the required specifications.
A high-level programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. It was originally designed for developing programs for set-top boxes and handheld devices, but later became a popular choice for creating web applications.
Joint Photographic Experts Group is a popular image file format. It is commonly used by digital cameras to store photos, and the format also supports varying levels of compression, which makes it ideal for web graphics.
An abbreviation for kilobyte, a K or KB is the smallest unit of measurement greater than a byte. It precedes the megabyte, which contains 1,000,000 bytes. While one kilobyte is technically 1,000 bytes, kilobytes are often used synonymously with kibibytes, which contain 1,024 bytes.
Stands for “Kilobits Per Second.” 1 Kbps is equal to 1,000 bits per second. That means a 300 Kbps connection can transfer 300,000 bits in one second. 1,000 Kbps is equal to 1 Mbps.Kbps is primarily used to measure data transfer rates.
Is a computer-network authentication protocol that works on the basis of unique keys – “tickets” – to allow nodes communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner. … Kerberos protocol messages are protected against eavesdropping and replay attacks.
Refers to the spacing between the characters of a font. Without kerning, each character takes up a block of space and the next character is printed after it. When kerning is applied to a font, the characters can vertically overlap. This does not mean that the characters actually touch, but instead it allows part of two characters to take up the same vertical space.
Words or phrases that describe content. They can be used as metadata to describe images, text documents, database records, and Web pages. A user may “tag” pictures or text files with keywords that are relevant to their content. Later on, these files may be searched using keywords, which can make finding files much easier.
A knowledge base is a centralized database for spreading information and data. Knowledge bases support collecting, organizing, retrieving, and sharing knowledge. For example, in order to provide more complete support, Klik Solutions maintains a knowledge base of the technologies each of our clients utilize.
Local area network is a network of connected devices that exist within a specific location. LANs may be found in homes, offices, educational institution, or other areas. A LAN may be wired, wireless, or a combination of the two. A standard wired LAN uses Ethernet to connect devices together. Wireless LANs are typically created using a Wi-Fi signal. If a router supports both Ethernet and Wi-Fi connections, it can be used to create a LAN with both wired and wireless devices.
A typography term that describes the distance between each line of text. It is pronounced ledding (like “sledding” without the “s”). The name comes from a time when typesetting was done by hand and pieces of lead were used to separate the lines. Today, leading is often used synonymously with “line height” or “line spacing.” Sometimes the terms have the same meaning, while in some applications, the implementation is different. Font leading is a setting commonly found in graphic design programs, while word processors typically use line spacing. Leading is typically measured in pixels, while line spacing is measured as a ratio of the default line height.
Another name for a hyperlink.
An open-source operating system that runs on a number of hardware platforms including PCs and Macintoshes. Linux is freely available over the Internet.
A mailing list program that was popular in the early days of the Internet. It was developed by Eric Thomas in 1985, but was not widely released until he made several revisions to make message distribution more efficient. The “Revised LISTSERV” program was released in June of 1986. It soon became the standard mailing list tool for BITNET, a network of United States universities. Simplicity and automation were the main reasons LISTSERV grew in popularity. For example, it works over standard email, meaning you do not need special software to use the service. It allows you to subscribe and unsubscribe by simply sending an email to the correct email address. Once you subscribe to a LISTSERV list, you can send messages to all other members and receive messages from everyone who is subscribed to the list. Subscriptions and message distribution are handled automatically by the LISTSERV program.
A set of credentials used to authenticate a user. Most often, these consist of a username and password. However, a login may include other information, such as a PIN number, passcode, or passphrase. Some logins require a biometric identifier, such as a fingerprint or retina scan.
The process of accessing a secure computer system or website. When you log on to a system, you provide “login” information that authenticates you as a user. This information typically includes a username and password, though some logins require extra information, such as a PIN number or a correct answer to a security question.
Media Access Control is a hardware identification number that uniquely identifies each device on a network. The MAC address is manufactured into every network card, such as an Ethernet card or Wi-Fi card, and therefore cannot be changed.
Macintosh is a line of desktop and laptop computers developed by Apple. Each Macintosh computer, or Mac, runs a version of the Mac OS, Apple’s desktop operating system. Since 2001, all Macs have run Mac OS X, a redesigned version of the original Mac OS that was built from the NeXTSTEP operating system.
This is the operating system that runs on Macintosh computers. The Mac OS has been around since the first Macintosh was introduced in 1984. Since then, it has been continually updated and many new features have been added to it. Each major OS release is signified by a new number (i.e. Mac OS 8, Mac OS 9).
A mail server (or email server) is a computer system that sends and receives email. In many cases, web servers and mail servers are combined in a single machine. However, large ISPs and public email services (such as Gmail and Hotmail) may use dedicated hardware for sending and receiving email.
The amount of memory physically installed in your computer. Also referred to as “RAM”.
A mainframe is an ultra high-performance computer made for high-volume, processor-intensive computing. They are typically used by large businesses and for scientific purposes. You probably won’t find a mainframe in any household. In the hierarchy of computers, mainframes are right below supercomputers, the most powerful computers in the world. (Which is why they are aptly named “supercomputers.”) Yet a mainframe can usually execute many programs simultaneously at a high speed, whereas supercomputers are designed for a single process.
Short for “malicious software,” malware refers to software programs designed to damage or do other unwanted actions on a computer system. Common examples of malware include viruses, worms, trojan horses, and spyware.
The practice of outsourcing on a proactive basis certain processes and functions intended to improve operations and cut expenses. Managed IT reduces downtime, improves maintenance, increases productivity and data security through an effective blend of help desk and on-site support and centralized deployment of software patches and virus protection updates.It is an alternative to the break/fix or on-demand outsourcing model where the service provider performs on-demand services and bills the customer only for the work done.
Messaging Application Programming Interface is an API for Microsoft Windows which allows programs to become email-aware. While MAPI is designed to be independent of the protocol, it is usually used to communicate with Microsoft Exchange Server.
Mobile Device Management is software that allows centralized admin control to secure and enforce policies on smartphones, tablets and other endpoints. MDM must be part of a coherent BYOD strategy.
One megabyte – meg or MB – is equal to 1,000 kilobytes and precedes the gigabyte unit of measurement. While a megabyte is technically 1,000,000 bytes, megabytes are often used synonymously with mebibytes.
One megahertz (abbreviated: MHz) is equal to 1,000 kilohertz, or 1,000,000 hertz. It can also be described as one million cycles per second. Megahertz is used to measure wave frequencies, as well as the speed of microprocessors. The higher the megahertz, the faster the computer.
A user interface element that contains selectable commands and options for a specific program. In Windows, menu bars are typically located at the top of open windows. Most menu bars include the standard File, Edit, and View menus. The File menu includes common file options such as New, Open…, Save, and Print. The Edit menu contains commands such as Undo, Select All, Copy, and Paste. The View menu typically includes zoom commands and options to show or hide elements within the window.
A popular email messaging system from Microsoft that runs on Windows servers. The server side is Microsoft Exchange Server and the featured client program is Microsoft Outlook, which includes contacts and calendaring. Until version 5.0 it came bundled with an email client called Microsoft Exchange Client. This was discontinued in favor of Microsoft Outlook.
The most widely used operating system for desktop and laptop computers. Developed by Microsoft, Windows primarily runs on x86-based computers (the ubiquitous PC), although versions have run on Intel’s Itanium CPUs. Windows provides a graphical user interface and desktop environment in which applications are displayed in resizable, movable windows on screen. Windows comes in both client and server versions, all of which support networking, the difference being that the server architecture is designed for dedicated server hardware. Although they can easily share their data with other users on the network, the client versions of Windows are geared to running user applications.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions are an extension to the Internet email protocol that allows users to exchange different kinds of data files over the Internet such as images, audio, and video. The MIME is required if text in character sets other than ASCII.
A hardware component that allows a computer or other device, such as a router or switch, to connect to the Internet. It converts or “modulates” an analog signal from a telephone or cable wire to a digital signal that a computer can recognize. Similarly, it converts outgoing digital data from a computer or other device to an analog signal.
Monitor, also referred to as display or computer screen, displays the computer’s user interface and open programs, allowing the user to interact with the computer, typically using the keyboard and mouse.
One of the primary input devices used with today’s computers. The name comes from the small shape of the mouse, which you can move quickly back and forth on the mouse pad, and the cord, which represents the mouse’s tail. All mice have at least one button, though most mice have two or three. Some also have additional buttons on the sides, which can be assigned to different commands. Most mice also have a scroll-wheel, which lets you scroll up and down documents and Web pages by just rolling the wheel with your index finger. Early mice tracked movement using a ball in the bottom of the mouse. This “mouse ball” pushed against different rollers as it moved, measuring the mouse’s speed and direction. However, now most mice use optical technology, which uses a beam of light to track the mouse’s motion. Optical mice are more accurate than roller-based mice and they have the added bonus of not getting dirty inside.
Motion Picture Experts Group, an organization that develops standards for encoding digital audio and video. It works with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) to ensure media compression standards are widely adopted and universally available. MPEG compression is so ubiquitous that the term “MPEG” is commonly used to refer to a video file saved in an MPEG file format rather than the organization itself. These files usually have a “.mpg” or “.mpeg” file extension.
Managed Service Provider, a company that remotely manages a customer’s IT infrastructure and/or end-user systems, typically on a proactive basis and under a subscription model.
Multi-cloud is a strategy where an organization leverages two or more cloud computing platforms to perform various tasks. Organizations that do not want to depend on a single cloud provider may choose to use resources from several providers to get the best benefits from each unique service.
Multifactor authentication (MFA) is a security system that requires more than one method of authentication from independent categories of credentials to verify the user’s identity for a login or other transaction.
The integration of multiple forms of media. This includes text, graphics, audio, video, etc. For example, a presentation involving audio and video clips would be considered a “multimedia presentation.” Educational software that involves animations, sound, and text is called “multimedia software.” CDs and DVDs are often considered to be “multimedia formats” since they can store a lot of data and most forms of multimedia require a lot of disk space.
The ability of a CPU to handle many processes at one time with complete accuracy. However, it will only process the instructions sent to it by the computer’s software. Therefore, to make full use of the CPU’s capabilities, the software must be able to process more than one task at a time, or multitask.
Network as a Services packages networking resources, services, and applications as a product that can be purchased for a number of users, usually for a contracted period of time.
A computer that runs a program for converting Internet domain names into the corresponding IP addresses and vice versa.
Network Address Translation translates the IP addresses of computers in a local network to a single IP address. This address is often used by the router that connects the computers to the Internet.
A network consists of multiple devices that communicate with one another. It can be as small as two computers or as large as billions of devices. While a traditional network is comprised of desktop computers, modern networks may include laptops, tablets, smartphones, televisions, gaming consoles, smart appliances, and other electronics. Many types of networks exist, but they fall under two primary categories: LANs and WANs.
The component of a computer’s internal hardware that is used for communicating over a network with another computer. It enables a computer to connect with another computer, server or any networking device over an LAN connection. A network adapter can be used over a wired or wireless network.
A device that allows multiple computers to communicate with each other over a network. It has several Ethernet ports that are used to connect two or more network devices together.
Network News Transport Protocol is the protocol used to connect to Usenet servers and transfer newsgroup articles between systems over the Internet. It is similar to the SMTP protocol used for sending email messages, but is designed specifically for newsgroup articles.
The oversight of a computer network using specialized management software tools. Network monitoring systems ensure the availability and overall performance of computers and network services. They let admins monitor access, routers, slow or failing components, firewalls, core switches, client systems, and server performance — among other network data.
Network security is the practice of preventing and protecting against unauthorized intrusion into corporate networks. As a philosophy, it complements endpoint security, which focuses on individual devices; network security instead focuses on how those devices interact, and on the connections between them.
Optical character recognition is a technology that recognizes text within a digital image. It is commonly used to recognize text in scanned documents, but it serves many other purposes as well.
On-premises – also known as on-premise and on-prem) is a network infrastructure and software installed on the premises of the organization rather than at a remote facility such as a server farm or cloud.
Technical support provided at a client site by a qualified technical professional.
When a machine is “online,” it is turned on and connected to other devices. For example, when a network printer is online, computers connected to that network can print from it. Other devices, such as scanners, video cameras, audio interfaces, and others are said to be online when they are running and connected to a computer system. A term that means “connected to the Internet” or a document or experience “on the internet”.
An operating system, or “OS,” is software that communicates with the hardware and allows other programs to run. It is comprised of system software, or the fundamental files your computer needs to boot up and function. Every desktop computer, tablet, and smartphone includes an operating system that provides basic functionality for the device.
Platform as a Service model in which a third-party provider delivers hardware and software tools — usually those needed for application development — to users over the internet. A PaaS provider hosts the hardware and software on its own infrastructure.
A small amount of data sent over a network, such as a LAN or the Internet. Each packet includes a source and destination as well as the content (or data) being transferred. When the packets reach their destination, they are reassembled into a single file or other contiguous block of data.
A password is a string of characters used for authenticating a user on a computer system. For example, you may have an account on your computer that requires you to log in. In order to successfully access your account, you must provide a valid username and password. This combination is often referred to as a login. While usernames are generally public information, passwords are private to each user.
Personal computer, commonly associated with Windows based computers. PCs are are what most of us use on a daily basis for work or personal use. A typical PC includes a system unit, monitor, keyboard, and mouse. Most PCs today also have a network or Internet connection, as well as ports for connecting peripheral devices, such as digital cameras, printers, scanners, speakers, external hard drives, and other components.
Portable Document Format is a file format designed to present documents consistently across multiple devices and platforms. A PDF file can store a wide variety of data, including formatted text, vector graphics, and raster images. It also contains page layout information, which defines the location of each item on the page, as well as the size and shape of the pages in the document. This information is all saved in a standard format, so the document looks the same, no matter what device or program is used to open it. For example, if you save a PDF on a Mac, it will appear the same way in Windows, Android, and iOS.
In a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, the “peers” are computer systems which are connected to each other via the Internet. Files can be shared directly between systems on the network without the need of a central server. In other words, each computer on a P2P network becomes a file server as well as a client. he only requirements for a computer to join a peer-to-peer network are an Internet connection and P2P software.
A computer peripheral is any external device that provides input and output for the computer. For example, a keyboard and mouse are input peripherals, while a monitor and printer are output peripherals. Computer peripherals, or peripheral devices, are sometimes called “I/O devices” because they provide input and output for the computer. Some peripherals, such as external hard drives, provide both input and output for the computer.
An attempt to steal your personal information by dropping bait through the internet. They send out e-mails that appear to come from legitimate websites such as eBay, PayPal, or other banking institutions. The e-mails state that your information needs to be updated or validated and ask that you enter your username and password, after clicking a link included in the e-mail. Some e-mails will ask that you enter even more information, such as your full name, address, phone number, social security number, and credit card number. However, even if you visit the false website and just enter your username and password, the phisher may be able to gain access to more information by just logging in to you account.
A ping is a signal sent to a host that requests a response. It serves two primary purposes: 1) to check if the host is available and 2) to measure how long the response takes.
Short for “picture element”. These small little dots are what make up the images on computer displays, whether they are flat-screen (LCD) or tube (CRT) monitors. The screen is divided up into a matrix of thousands or even millions of pixels. Typically, you cannot see the individual pixels, because they are so small. This is a good thing, because most people prefer to look at smooth, clear images rather than blocky, “pixelated” ones. However, if you set your monitor to a low resolution, such as 640×480 and look closely at your screen, you will may be able to see the individual pixels.
A software plug-in is an add-on for a program that adds functionality to it. For example, a Photoshop plug-in may add extra filters that you can use to manipulate images. A browser plug-in such as Macromedia Flash or Apple QuickTime allows you to play certain multimedia files within your Web browser. VST plug-ins add effects for audio recording and sequencing programs such as Cubase and Logic Audio.
Describes devices that work with a computer system as soon as they are connected. The user does not have to manually install drivers for the device or even tell the computer that a new device has been added. Instead the computer automatically recognizes the device, loads new drivers for the hardware if needed, and begins to work with the newly connected device.
Post Office Protocol or just POP is a simple, standardized method of delivering e-mail messages. A POP3 mail server receives e-mails and filters them into the appropriate user folders. When a user connects to the mail server to retrieve his mail, the messages are downloaded from mail server to the user’s hard disk.
A type of menu that pops up on the screen when the user right-clicks a certain object or area. It can be also called a contextual menu since the menu options are relevant to where the user right-clicked on the screen. Pop-up menus provide quick access to common program functions and are used by most operating systems and applications.
A page description language (PDL) that describes a page’s text and graphical content. It can be used to define the appearance of graphics and text for both screen and print.
Point-to-Point Protocol is a protocol that enables communication and data transfer between two points or “nodes.” For many years, PPP was the standard way to establish a dial-up connection to an ISPs. As dial-up modems were superseded by broadband devices, PPP connections became increasing. However, PPP lives on in “PPP over Ethernet” (PPPoE), which is a common way to connect to the Internet using a DSL modem.
Power over ethernet provides electrical current over an Ethernet connection. It powers electronic devices via Ethernet cabling without the need for batteries or a wall outlet.
Power users are computer users who require top-of-the-line machines that are optimized for their work purposes. Power users include video-editing professionals, high-end graphic designers, audio producers, and those who use their computers for scientific research.
A small chip that resides in computers and other electronic devices. Its basic job is to receive input and provide the appropriate output. While this may seem like a simple task, modern processors can handle trillions of calculations per second. The central processor of a computer is also known as the CPU, or “central processing unit.” This processor handles all the basic system instructions, such as processing mouse and keyboard input and running applications. Most desktop computers contain a CPU developed by either Intel or AMD, both of which use the x86 processor architecture. Mobile devices, such as laptops and tablets may use Intel and AMD CPUs, but can also use specific mobile processors developed by companies like ARM or Apple.
Executable software that runs on a computer. It is similar to a script, but is often much larger in size and does not require a scripting engine to run. Instead, a program consists of compiled code that can run directly from the computer’s operating system. Examples of programs include Web browsers, word processors, e-mail clients, video games, and system utilities. These programs are often called applications, which can be used synonymously with “software programs.” On Windows, programs typically have an .EXE file extension, while Macintosh programs have an .APP extension.
Private cloud is a type of cloud computing that delivers similar advantages to public cloud, including scalability and self-service, but through a proprietary architecture. Unlike public clouds, which deliver services to multiple organizations, a private cloud is dedicated to the needs and goals of a single organization.
A standard set of rules that allow electronic devices to communicate with each other. These rules include what type of data may be transmitted, what commands are used to send and receive data, and how data transfers are confirmed.
A server that all computers on the local network have to go through before accessing information on the Internet. By using a proxy server, an organization can improve the network performance and filter what users connected to the network can access.
A term that describes a software product that is not protected by copyright. The copyright protection an item in the public domain may have 1) expired, 2) been released by the author, or 3) never existed in the first place. Public domain items are publicly available and can be freely accessed and redistributed.
Specifically requesting information from a particular source. Downloading Web pages via a Web browser is an example of pull technology. Getting mail is also pull technology if the user initiates a request to retrieve it. Contrast with push technology.
A system in which data is “pushed” to a user’s device rather than “pulled” by the user. In other words, the data transfer is initiated by the server rather than the client. Push technology, which is also called “server push,” can be used to send news data, stock updates, and other information from the Internet to a user’s computer. It is also used to send text messages via SMS to people’s cell phones. Push e-mail allows users to receive e-mail messages without having to check their e-mail manually. This means new messages appear on the client’s device as soon as they are received by the server. However, in order to receive pushed messages, both the mail server and the user’s e-mail client must support push technology.
The description or measurement of the overall performance of a service, such as a telephony or computer network or a cloud computing service, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network. To quantitatively measure quality of service, several related aspects of the network service are often considered, such as packet loss, bit rate, throughput, transmission delay, availability, jitter, etc. In the field of computer networking and other packet-switched telecommunication networks, quality of service refers to traffic prioritization and resource reservation control mechanisms rather than the achieved service quality. Quality of service is the ability to provide different priority to different applications, users, or data flows, or to guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow. Quality of service is particularly important for the transport of traffic with special requirements. In particular, developers have introduced Voice over IP technology to allow computer networks to become as useful as telephone networks for audio conversations, as well as supporting new applications with even stricter network performance requirements.
A question. In computing, queries are used to retrieve information. Computer queries are sent to a computer system and are processed by a software program rather than a person. Common queries include search engine searches and database queries.
QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple. It supports playback of several common audio and video formats, including Apple’s proprietary .MOV format.
Pronounced “ram”, Random Access Memory is a common hardware component found in electronic devices, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets, and smartphones. The amount of RAM in a device determines how much memory the operating system and open applications can use. When a device has sufficient RAM, several programs can run simultaneously without any slowdown. When a device uses close to 100% of the available RAM, memory must be swapped between applications, which may cause a noticeable slowdown. Therefore, adding RAM or buying a device with more RAM is one of the best ways to improve performance. “RAM” and “memory” may be used interchangeably. For example, a computer with 16 GB of RAM has 16 gigabytes of memory. This is different than storage capacity, which refers to how much disk space the device’s HDD or SSD provides for storing files.
A database entry that may contain one or more values. Groups of records are stored in a table, which defines what types of data each record may contain. Databases may contain multiple tables which may each contain multiple records.
A database of settings used by Microsoft Windows. It stores configurations for hardware devices, installed applications, and the Windows operating system. The Registry provides a centralized method of storing custom preferences for each Windows user.
The ability to access your computer from a remote location. Programs like PC Anywhere (Windows), Remote Access (Mac), and Timbuktu (Windows and Mac) allow users to control remote computers from their local machine. In order for a remote access connection to take place, the local machine must have the remote client software installed and the remote machine must have the remote server software installed. Also, a username and password is almost always required to authenticate the connecting user.
An online managed backup service for backing up and storing data to a remote, cloud-based server (“cloud backup”) off premises. This is a best practice methods for ensuring data backup integrity should a disaster occur on prem. To update or restore a cloud backup, customers need to use the service provider’s specific client application or Web browser interface. Files and data can be automatically saved to the cloud backup service on a regular, scheduled basis, or the information can be automatically backed up anytime changes are made.
Remote desktop technology makes it possible to view another computer’s desktop on your computer. This means you can open folders, move files, and even run programs on the remote computer, right from your own desktop. Both Windows and Macintosh computer support remote desktop connections, though they use different implementations.
An interactive connection from your desktop computer over a network or Internet service to a computer in another location (remote site).
RJ45 is a type of connector commonly used for Ethernet networking. It looks similar to a telephone jack, but is slightly wider. Since Ethernet cables have an RJ45 connector on each end, Ethernet cables are sometimes also called RJ45 cables.
Read Only Memory is memory containing hardwired instructions that the computer uses when it boots up, before the system software loads. In PCs, the instructions are read from a small program in the ROM, called the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System).
A hardware device that routes data from a local area network (LAN) to another network connection. A router acts like a coin sorting machine, allowing only authorized machines to connect to other computer systems. Most routers also keep log files about the local network activity.
Rich Text Format is a file format standardized by Microsoft for creating formatted text files. Unlike a basic text file, an RTF file can include information such as text style, size, and color. The nice thing about the RTF format is that it is a universal format, meaning it can be read by nearly all word processors.
Software as a Service is a method of software delivery and licensing in which software is accessed online via a subscription, rather than bought and installed on individual computers. SaaS applications typically run within a Web browser, which means users only need a compatible browser in order to access the software.
A way for the Windows operating system to run with the minimum system files necessary. It uses a generic VGA display driver instead of the vendor-specific driver, which means you will likely be working with only 16 colors in a resolution of 640×480. Safe Mode also turns off all third-party drivers for other peripherals such as mice, keyboards, printers, and scanners. In basic Safe Mode, networking files and settings are not loaded, meaning you won’t be able to connect to the Internet or other computers on a network.
A storage area network (SAN) is a network of storage devices that can be accessed by multiple computers. Each computer on the network can access hard drives in the SAN as if they were local disks connected directly to the computer. This allows individual hard drives to be used by multiple computers, making it easy to share information between different machines.
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment or Serial ATA. An interface used to connect ATA hard drives to a computer’s motherboard that provides a better, more efficient interface.
A software management strategy that isolates applications from critical system resources and other programs. It provides an extra layer of security that prevents malware or harmful applications from negatively affecting your system.
A computer script is a list of commands that are executed by a certain program or scripting engine. Scripts may be used to automate processes on a local computer or to generate Web pages on the Web. For example, DOS scripts and VB Scripts may be used to run processes on Windows machines, while AppleScript scripts can automate tasks on Macintosh computers. ASP, JSP, and PHP scripts are often run on Web servers to generate dynamic Web page content.
When the contents of a window are too large to be displayed entirely within the window, a scroll bar will appear. For example, if a Web page is too long to fit within a window, a scroll bar will show up on the right-hand side of the window, allowing you to scroll up and down the page. If the page is too wide for the window, another scroll bar will appear at the bottom of the window, allowing you to scroll to the left and right. If the window’s contents fit within the current window size, the scroll bars will not appear.
Search engines such as Google, Yahoo, Bing, and others index millions of sites on the Web, so that users can easily find Web sites with the information they want. By creating indexes, or large databases of Web sites (based on titles, keywords, and the text in the pages), search engines can locate relevant Web sites when users enter search terms or phrases.
SEO involves a number of adjustments to the HTML of individual Web pages to achieve a high search engine ranking. The META tags that most search engines read are the description and keywords tags. Within the description tags, you should type a brief description of the Web page. It should be similar but more detailed than the title. Within the keywords tags, you should list 5-20 words that relate to the content of the page. Using META tags can significantly boost your search engine ranking.
A security token is an electronic software access and identity verification device used in lieu of or with an authentication password. Security token technology is based on two-factor or multifactor authorization. Security token is also known as Universal Serial Bus (USB) token, cryptographic token, hardware token, hard token, authentication token or key fob.
An executable program that contains one or more compressed files. When run, the self-extracting archive (SFX) automatically decompresses the files. The archive combines the decompression program with the compressed files and enables the distribution of compressed data without concern whether the recipient user has the required decompression utility. Although most data are compressed with the zip algorithm, and computers typically have a built-in unzip capability, the self-extracting archive is valuable for distributing compressed archives in other formats. It is also used to distribute malware.
A type of connection on PCs that is used for peripherals such as mice, gaming controllers, modems, and older printers.
A server is a computer that provides data to other computers. It may serve data to systems on a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) over the Internet. Many types of servers exist, including web servers, mail servers, and file servers. Each type runs software specific to the purpose of the server.
Shareware is software that you can use on a trial basis before paying for it. Unlike freeware, shareware often has limited functionality or may only be used for a limited time before requiring payment and registration. Once you pay for a shareware program, the program is fully functional and the time limit is removed.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the protocol used for sending e-mail over the Internet. Your e-mail client (such as Outlook, Eudora, or Mac OS X Mail) uses SMTP to send a message to the mail server, and the mail server uses SMTP to relay that message to the correct receiving mail server. Basically, SMTP is a set of commands that authenticate and direct the transfer of electronic mail.
A general term that describes computer programs which serve a specific funtion. Related terms such as software programs, applications, scripts, and instruction sets all fall under the category of computer software. Therefore, installing new programs or applications on your computer is synonymous with installing new software on your computer.
Refers to junk e-mail or irrelevant postings to a newsgroup or bulletin board. The unsolicited e-mail messages you receive trying to sell you a product or service are all considered to be spam.
A Solid State Drive is a type of mass storage device similar to a hard disk drive (HDD). It supports reading and writing data and maintains stored data in a permanent state even without power. Internal SSDs connect to a computer like a hard drive, using standard IDE or SATA connections. While SSDs serve the same function as hard drives, their internal components are much different. Unlike hard drives, SSDs do not have any moving parts (which is why they are called solid state drives). Instead of storing data on magnetic platters, SSDs store data using flash memory. Since SSDs have no moving parts, they don’t have to “spin up” while in a sleep state and they don’t need to move a drive head to different parts of the drive to access data. Therefore, SSDs can access data faster than HDDs.
Service Set Identifier is a unique ID that consists of 32 characters and is used for naming wireless networks. When multiple wireless networks overlap in a certain location, SSIDs make sure that data gets sent to the correct destination.
Data streaming, commonly seen in the forms of audio and video streaming, is when a multimedia file can be played back without being completely downloaded first. Most files, like shareware and software updates that you download off the Internet, are not streaming data. However, certain audio and video files like Real Audio and QuickTime documents can be streaming files, meaning you can watch a video or listen to a sound file while it’s being downloaded to your computer.
Any software that covertly captures user information like Web browsing habits, e-mail messages, usernames and passwords, and credit card information. If left unchecked, the software can transmit this data to another person’s computer over the Internet.
Computers store data in a series of directories. Each directory, or folder, may contain files or other directories. If a directory is located within another directory, it is called a subdirectory (or subfolder) of that folder. Subdirectories may refer to folders located directly within a folder, as well as folders that are stored in other folders within a folder.
A number that defines a range of IP addresses available within a network. A single subnet mask limits the number of valid IPs for a specific network. Multiple subnet masks can organize a single network into smaller networks (called subnetworks or subnets). Systems within the same subnet can communicate directly with each other, while systems on different subnets must communicate through a router.
A data structure that organizes information into rows and columns. It can be used to both store and display data in a structured format. For example, databases store data in tables so that information can be quickly accessed from specific rows. Websites often use tables to display multiple rows of data on page. Spreadsheets combine both purposes of a table by storing and displaying data in a structured format.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol allows computers to communicate over long distance networks. The TCP part has to do with the verifying delivery of the packets. The IP part refers to the moving of data packets between nodes. TCP/IP has since then become the foundation of the Internet.
One terabyte (TB) is equal to 1,000 gigabytes and precedes the petabyte unit of measurement. While a terabyte is exactly 1 trillion bytes, in some cases terabytes and tebibytes are used synonymously, though a tebibyte actually contains 1,099,511,627,776 bytes (1,024 gibibytes).
A program which provides a text-based interface for typing commands. This type of program is often abbreviated “TTY” and may also be referred to as a command-line interface. Terminal programs are available for all major computing platforms and are typically included with the operating system.
Thick clients, also called heavy clients, are full-featured computers that are connected to a network. Unlike thin clients, which lack hard drives and other features, thick clients are functional whether they are connected to a network or not.
Thin clients function as regular PCs, but lack hard drives and typically do not have extra I/O ports or other unnecessary features. Since they do not have hard drives, thin clients do not have any software installed on them. Instead, they run programs and access data from a server.
There are three different types of tokens. In networking, a token is a series of bits that circulate on a token-ring network. When one of the systems on the network has the “token,” it can send information to the other computers. In programming, a token is a single element of a programming language. There are five categories of tokens: 1) constants, 2) identifiers, 3) operators, 4) separators, and 5) reserved words. In security systems, a hard token is small card that displays an identification code used to log into a network. When the card user enters the correct password, the card will display the current ID needed to log into the network. This adds an extra level of protection to the network because the IDs change every few minutes. Security tokens also come in software versions, called soft tokens.
A set of icons or buttons that are part of a software program’s interface or an open window. When it is part of a program’s interface, the toolbar typically sits directly under the menu bar.
Trojan horses are software programs that masquerade as regular programs, such as games, disk utilities, and even antivirus programs. But if they are run, these programs can do malicious things to your computer. For example, a Trojan horse might appear to be a computer game, but once you double-click it, the program starts writing over certain parts of your hard drive, corrupting your data.
The process of sending a file from your computer to another system. The opposite action is download.
Universal Serial Bus is the most common type of computer port used in today’s computers. It can be used to connect keyboards, mice, game controllers, printers, scanners, digital cameras, and removable media drives, just to name a few. With the help of a few USB hubs, you can connect multiple peripherals to a single USB port and use them all at once.
The experience a person has using a product or service. In the technology world, this often refers to a hardware device or software program. A positive user experience is simple, intuitive, and enjoyable. A negative user experience is complex, confusing, and frustrating. Successful companies focus on creating a high-quality user experience.
A name used in conjunction with a password to gain access to a computer system or a network service.a name that uniquely identifies someone on a computer system.
Uniform Resource Locator is the address of a specific webpage or file on the Internet. For example, the URL of the Klik Solutions website is “https://klik.solutions.” The address of this page is “https://klik.solutions/glossary” and includes the following elements: “https://” – the URL prefix, which specifies the secure protocol used to access the location; “klik.solutions”– the server name or IP address of the server; “glossary” – the path to the directory or file.
A standard cable connection interface, USB ports allow USB devices to be connected to each other with and transfer digital data over USB cables.
A name that uniquely identifies someone on a computer system. For example, a computer may be setup with multiple accounts, with different usernames for each account. Many websites allow users to choose a username so that they can customize their settings or set up an online account.
Software programs that add functionality to your computer or help your computer perform better. These include antivirus, backup, disk repair, file management, security, and networking programs. Utilities can also be applications such as screensavers, font and icon tools, and desktop enhancements.
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure is virtualization technology that hosts a desktop operating system on a centralized server in a data center. VDI is a variation on the client-server computing model, sometimes referred to as server-based computing.
Virtualization is the creation of a virtual rather than physical version of a hardware platform, operating system, storage device or network resources. While most computers only have one operating system installed, virtualization software allows a computer to run several operating systems at the same time. The software or firmware that creates a virtual machine on the host hardware is called a hypervisor. Virtualization software acts as a layer between a computer’s primary OS and the virtual OS. It allows the virtual system to access the computer’s hardware, such as the RAM, CPU, and video card, just like the primary OS.
Virtual hosting is a method for hosting multiple domain names (with separate handling of each name) on a single server (or pool of servers). This allows one server to share its resources, such as memory and processor cycles, without requiring all services provided to use the same host name.
A virtual machine (or VM) is an emulated computer system created using software. It uses physical system resources, such as the CPU, RAM, and disk storage, but is isolated from other software on the computer. It can easily be created, modified, or destroyed without affecting the host computer. Virtual machines provide similar functionality to physical machines, but they do not run directly on the hardware. Instead, a software layer exists between the hardware and the virtual machine. The software that manages one or more VMs is called a “hypervisor” and the VMs are called “guests” or virtualized instances. Each guest can interact with the hardware, but the hypervisor controls them. The hypervisor can start up and shut down virtual machines and also allocate a specific amount of system resources to each one.
Virtual memory increases the available memory your computer has by enlarging the “address space,” or places in memory where data can be stored. It does this by using hard disk space for additional memory allocation. However, since the hard drive is much slower than the RAM, data stored in virtual memory must be mapped back to real memory in order to be used.
An artificial environment created with computer hardware and software to simulate the look and feel of a real environment. A user wears earphones, a special pair of gloves, and goggles that create a 3D display. Examples: manipulating imaginary 3D objects by “grabbing” them, taking a tour of a “virtual” building, or playing an interactive game.
Small programs or scripts that can negatively affect the health of your computer. These malicious programs can create files, move files, erase files, consume your computer’s memory, and cause your computer not to function correctly. Some viruses can duplicate themselves, attach themselves to programs, and travel across networks. In fact opening an infected e-mail attachment is the most common way to get a virus.
Voice over Internet Protocol is a telephone connection over the Internet. The data is sent digitally, using the Internet Protocol (IP) instead of analog telephone lines. This allows people to talk to one another long-distance and around the world without having to pay long distance or international phone charges.
Virtual Private Networking is a network that is “tunneled” through a wide area network WAN such as the Internet. This means the network does not have to be located in one physical location like a LAN. However, by using encryption and other security measures, a VPN can scramble all the data sent through the wide area network, so the network is “virtually” private.
Wide Area Network similar to a Local Area Network (LAN), but much larger. Unlike LANs, WANs are not limited to a single location. Many wide area networks span long distances via telephone lines, fiber optic cables, or satellite links. They can also be composed of smaller LANs that are interconnected. The Internet could be described as the biggest WAN in the world.
Wireless Application Protocol; a set of communication protocols for enabling wireless access to the Internet.
Wired Equivalent Privacy is a security protocol for Wi-Fi networks. Since wireless networks transmit data over radio waves, it is easy to intercept data or “eavesdrop” on wireless data transmissions. The goal of WEP is to make wireless networks as secure as wired networks, such as those connected by Ethernet cables.
A wireless networking technology that allows computers and other devices to communicate over a wireless signal. It describes network components that are based on one of the 802.11 standards developed by the IEEE and adopted by the Wi-Fi Alliance. Wi-Fi is the standard way computers connect to wireless networks. Nearly all modern computers have built-in Wi-Fi chips that allows users to find and connect to wireless routers. Most mobile devices, video game systems, and other standalone devices also support Wi-Fi, enabling them to connect to wireless networks as well.
A special character that can be substituted for zero or more characters in a string. Wildcards are commonly used in computer programming, database SQL search queries, and when navigating through DOS or Unix directories via the command prompt.
An area on the screen that displays information for a specific program. This often includes the user interface GUI as well as the program content. Windows are used by most applications as well as the operating system itself. A typical window includes a title bar along the top that describes the contents of the window, followed by a toolbar that contains user interface buttons. Most of the window’s remaining area is used to display the content.
A series of operating systems developed by Microsoft. Each version of Windows includes a graphical user interface, with a desktop that allows users to view files and folders in windows. For the past two decades, Windows has been the most widely used operating system for personal computers PCs.
The ability to access the Internet using wi-fi or some other nonphysical network connection such as Bluetooth. Devices such as smartphones and tablets that allow you to send and receive e-mail use a wireless Internet connection based on a protocol called WAP (Wireless Application Protocol). At this point, web sites that contain wireless Internet content are limited, but will multiply as the use of devices relying on WAP increases.
A part of a program that guides you through certain steps. For example, a wizard in Microsoft Word would help you create and format a new document according to your needs.
Wireless Local Area Network is the computers and devices that make up a wireless network.
It refers to a computer and user area that has been configured to perform a certain set of tasks, such as photo editing, audio recording, or video production. An office may have several workstations for different purposes, which may be assigned to certain employees. For example, one workstation may be used for scanning and importing images, while another is used for editing images. Because workstations often work together like in the example above, they are commonly networked together.
WWW or simply “the Web” is a subset of the Internet. The Web consists of pages that can be accessed using a Web browser such as Google Chrome, Safari, and Firefox. The Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the method used to transfer Web pages to your computer. With hypertext, a word or phrase can contain a link to another Web site. All Web pages are written in the hyper-text markup language (HTML), which works in conjunction with HTTP.
Wi-Fi Protected Access is a security protocol designed to create secure wireless (Wi-Fi) networks. It is similar to the WEP protocol, but offers improvements in the way it handles security keys and the way users are authorized.
What You See Is What You Get; a kind of word processor that does formatting so that printed output looks identical to what appears on your screen.
Extensible Hypertext Markup Language is a spinoff of the hypertext markup language (HTML) used for creating Web pages. It is based on the HTML 4.0 syntax, but has been modified to follow the guidelines of XML, the Extensible Markup Language. Therefore, XHTML 1.0 is sometimes referred to as HTML 5.0.
Extensible Markup Language is used to define documents with a standard format that can be read by any XML-compatible application. The language can be used with HTML pages, but XML itself is not a markup language. Instead, it is a “metalanguage” that can be used to create markup languages for specific applications.
Zero-day (or zero-hour or day zero) exploit is a malicious computer attack that takes advantage of a security hole before the vulnerability is known. This means the security issue is made known the same day as the computer attack is released. In other words, the software developer has zero days to prepare for the security breach and must work as quickly as possible to develop a patch or update that fixes the problem. Zero day exploits may involve viruses, trojan horses, worms or other malicious code that can be run within a software program. While most programs do not allow unauthorized code to be executed, hackers can sometimes create files that will cause a program to perform functions unintended by the developer. Programs like Web browsers and media players are often targeted by hackers because they can receive files from the Internet and have access to system functions.
A zip file (.zip) is a “zipped” or compressed file. For example, when you download a file, if the filename looks like this: “filename.zip,” you are downloading a zipped file. “Zipping” a file involves compressing one or more items into a smaller archive. A zipped file takes up less hard drive space and takes less time to transfer to another computer. This is why most Windows files that you find on the Internet are compressed.